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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-June 2022
Volume 36 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-30

Online since Monday, June 27, 2022

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Vocal changes in different phases of menstrual cycle: An evidence from the acoustic, cepstral, and spectral analysis p. 1
SV Narasimhan, M Pooja
Introduction: Spectral and cepstral analyses of voice have potential clinical implications and can be used as a quantitative acoustic index to assess vocal function in various phases of the menstrual cycle. However, only a handful of studies have attempted to investigate these measures to document the vocal changes across various phases of the menstrual cycle and the results are not conclusive. Therefore, the study aimed to document the acoustic, spectral, and cepstral parameters of voice across the four phases of the menstrual cycle. Methods: Phonation samples were recorded during four phases of the menstrual cycle –menstrual phase, follicular phase, ovulation phase, and luteal phase – from 30 female participants. None of the participants reported any hormone-related problems, presence, or history of any voice problems and had a regular menstrual cycle at least from the past 5 years. All the phonation samples were analyzed, and the acoustic, spectral, and cepstral parameters were extracted. Results: Fundamental frequency, H1-H2, and cepstral peak prominence (CPP) values were significantly different across the phases of the menstrual cycle. Across the phases of the menstrual cycle, the fundamental frequency, H1-H2, and the CPP values were optimal during the follicular phase and the deviant values were noted during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Conclusion: Future investigations could include the analysis of cepstral and spectral parameters extracted from both the phonation and speech samples that can provide more penetrating and ample in-depth insights into the voice changes across the various phases of the menstrual cycle.
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Parental perspectives on shared reading practices at home p. 7
R Vrinda, Aparna Baiju, Devika Rajendran
Background: Shared book reading is the interaction that occurs between child and adult when they look at or read a book together and it facilitates the development of emergent literacy and language skills. In India, oral narration of stories was the tradition and shared book reading is not a culturally familiar routine. Shared reading practice among preschoolers in India is a less explored research area. Aim: The present study explores the parental perspectives and practices on shared reading at home and also its association with Socioeconomic status. Method: Forty -one parents of 3-5 years old typically developing children with Malayalam as native language participated in the study. The questionnaire on 'Parental Perspectives on Storybook Reading in Indian Home Contexts' was used to understand the parental perspectives on shared reading, and the “Modified Kuppuswamy Socioeconomic Scale” was used to understand the socioeconomic status of the family. Results: 73.1% of parents reported that they began reading to their children between 2 and 4 years of age, 43.9% read 3–5 times per week, and 58.5% had fewer than 10 books in the home. The parental attitude and beliefs about shared reading did not correlate with SES and child's age. Conclusion: Overall, the findings indicate that parents were aware of the benefits of storybook reading and were generally positive about it. The findings of this study provide preliminary information on the home literacy environment (HLE) in Kerala. Understanding more about the parental storybook reading practice will facilitate the development of parent programs to enhance and promote quality HLEs.
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Research interests in speech, language, and hearing sciences: A scientometric study of master's dissertations p. 14
S Ramkumar
Introduction: The disciplines of audiology and speech-language pathology are fascinating academic domains, with pronounced 'clinical practice' component. The direction of research and coverage of clinical disorders in master's dissertations can serve as a baseline for future research. Method: The dataset covered 1111 master's dissertations from eight institutes in India spanning 2012-2017 and followed a bibliometric and analytical approach. Results: Domain-wise, the pattern was hearing and its disorders (45.82%)>speech and its disorders (29.79%) > language and its disorders (21.42%). In terms of sub- domains of speech, language and hearing, it was observed that voice and its disorders >phonology, articulation and their disorders >fluency and its disorders; child language disorders >adult language disorders. and diagnostic Audiology >rehabilitative Audiology. The clinical topics covered most in audiology were: rehabilitative audiology-hearing aids, cochlear implants; vestibular balance disorders; sensorineural hearing loss; tinnitus and hyperacusis. The five topmost clinical topics in speech-language pathology were: stuttering; cleft lip/palate; aphasia, feeding and swallowing; autism spectrum disorders and intellectual(Learning) disability. Conclusion: More studies on topics with emphasis on rehabilitative aspects could be attempted. The choice of topics covering advocacy and public health in the form of KAP studies is commendable and can bring about behavioral change and awareness about communication disorders. The speech and hearing institutes can initiate plans for synergy and active collaborations between and among the different players. A directed research agenda by the institutes to align with the national/global needs is suggested.
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Articulation rate and speech rhythm in child-directed speech and adult-directed speech p. 18
Jyothi Shivaswamy, Santosh Maruthy, Animesh Barman
Introduction: Studies have demonstrated that mothers exaggerate linguistic, segmental and supra-segmental properties of Child-Directed Speech. However, these studies have majorly focused on acoustic characteristics of pitch and its related measures. There has been relatively little research on speech rhythm. Though many studies report slower articulation rate relative to Adult-Directed Speech, still there is no conclusive evidence across different languages. Aims: This study aims to examine articulation rate and rhythm in Kannada speaking mothers, a Dravidian language which is less explored. Methods and Material: Twenty-five dyads of mothers and their children were recruited from the local community through random sampling for the study. The mean age of these children was 2.08 years (SD = 0.61, range= 1.89). The mean age of mothers was 30.96 years (SD= 3.44, range= 13). Articulation rate was calculated by dividing the number of syllables per second by the total duration of fluent speech in each two-minute sample. Speech rhythm was measured using an automatized approach, i.e., Envelope Modulation Spectra (EMS). Results: Results demonstrated that mothers spoke slower to their children when compared to speaking with the adult supporting the universality nature of Child-Directed Speech. Conclusions: However, results showed no conclusive evidence for the analysis of speech rhythm and hence gives a future direction to explore on the use of EMS in the normal population is mandated.
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Factors Leading to Brain Drain of Speech and Hearing Professionals in India p. 25
Niraj Kumar Singh, Amulya P Rao, Y Krishna, B Arun, Asha Yathiraj, C Indranil, KR Sunil, Pradeep , Prawin Kumar, K Suman, Javara Nayaka, Achaiah , TV Reuben, Deepa Valame, Gagan Bajaj, Hemanth Narayan Shetty, MB Priya, Gayathri Krishnan, Prasanna Hegde
Introduction: India lacks workforce in the field of speech and hearing leading to the hire of speech and hearing technicians at many work setups. They are allowed to work independently which affects the efficacy of rehabilitation to a greater extent. This alarm necessitates the investigation of reasons for brain drain which will, in turn, help in improvising the speech and hearing services in India. Methods: An e-survey was conducted by circulating a questionnaire which included 10 questions seeking information on the type of job placement, number of shifts in job, the reasons for shifting jobs, satisfaction level at workplace, and percentage of professionals preferring India and/or abroad for job placement. The questionnaire was sent to 3700 professionals, out of whom 360 professionals responded. Results: Lower income, poor professional growth, and unsatisfied job profile were found to be the major reasons for brain drain in India. Conclusion: A regular detailed investigation of reasons for frequent brain drain is required by the concerned bodies in India. In addition, steps should also be taken to rectify the same. Such careful actions may increase the potential employment opportunities for efficient fully trained speech and hearing professionals in India. This will, in turn, raise good quality speech and hearing services in India.
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