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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-December 2022
Volume 36 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 31-68

Online since Tuesday, January 10, 2023

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Situational variations in disfluencies in bilingual person with no stuttering and person with stuttering p. 31
Abhilash Ghadei, Archita Kumari, Suresh Thontadarya, A Srividya
DOI:10.4103/jisha.jisha_31_22  
Introduction: Literature evidence that “Disfluency” is normal, nonstuttered disruptions can be seen in nonstutterers, whereas “Dysfluency” refers to stuttered interruptions of speech common in stutterers. Variation of dis/dysfluencies may vary according to situation and language. The existing evidence is limited for explaining the variation of stuttering (dysfluency) or stuttering-like behaviors (disfluency) across different daily life situations and based on langue use in a person with stuttering (PWS) and person with no stuttering (PWNS). The aim was to compare self-reported situational variations of dis/dysfluencies in L1 and L2 among bilingual PWNS as well as bilingual PWS. The study design involves a comparative study. Method: Participants in the age range of 18–24 years were considered in two groups that are a group of PWS and PWNS. In both groups, 112 were recruited (85 were PWNS and 27 were PWS). For the PWS group, individuals with developmental stuttering with a severity above a mild degree, as assessed on SSI-4 by a speech-language pathologist, were selected. As the study tool, a self-reported questionnaire was prepared and administered to check the situational variation of dis/dysfluencies among the participants (for both L1 and L2), which included their rating (0–5 Likert scale). Descriptive statistics and repeated ANOVA were done. Results: Outcomes revealed that there was a significant difference seen in the frequency of dis/dysfluencies when situations in L1 and situations in L2 were compared, respectively, in PWNS and also when L1 and L2 were compared in PWNS, whereas there were no significant differences seen when situations in L1 and situations in L2 were compared, respectively, in PWS and also when L1 and L2 were compared in PWS. Conclusion: Further Investigation on the topic of situational variation of dys/ disfluency could be attempted considering more daily life situations.
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Phoneme monitoring abilities in bilingual adolescents and young adults who stutter p. 37
Archita Kumari, Abhilash Ghadei, Suresh Thontadarya, A Srividya
DOI:10.4103/jisha.jisha_30_22  
Introduction: Stuttering occurs when the simultaneous and sequential programming of muscle movements required to produce a continuous flow of speech is disrupted. The generalized phoneme monitoring task, in which subjects detect target phonemes appearing anywhere in the test words, was shown to be sensitive to associative context effects. The aim is to investigate the phoneme monitoring abilities in L2 (English) among bilingual adolescents and young adults who stutter. This was a comparative study. Methods: Twenty-two bilinguals (11 persons with stuttering [PWS] and 11 persons with no stuttering [PWNS]) were considered within the age range of 10–16 years (adolescents) and 17–24 years (young adults). An adaptation of the Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire (LEAP-Q) to the Indian context was done on all the participants. The phoneme of English with the highest occurrence was considered. A list of picturable bisyllabic words was made using these target phonemes in initial and medial positions. The audio of targeted phonemes was prerecorded using PRAAT software. In phase 1, PsychoPy software was used to present the targeted phoneme along with the familiarized picture and record the responses of the participants. Keys of the keyboard were assigned to yes/no. In phase 2, the same picture was presented, and the response rate and accuracy in naming the pictures shown were calculated. Descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA were done. Results: The results of the present study showed that bilingual PWNS took more time to identify the presence or absence of the target consonant when compared to bilingual PWS. Bilingual PWNS had a higher number of correct responses than bilingual PWS. With respect to the position of the target phoneme, incorrect responses were similar when the target phoneme was in the medial or initial position. Conclusion: The current study advances the theoretical understanding of the causes of stuttering, particularly by supporting the psycholinguistic causes of stuttering.
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Vocal habits, dysphonia severity index, and voice-related quality of life in indian primary school teachers: An exploratory study p. 45
Zaiba Khateeb, SV Narasimhan
DOI:10.4103/jisha.jisha_28_22  
Context: Only a handful of studies have explored the relationship between vocal habits, Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) scores, and Voice-Related Quality of Life (VRQOL), especially among Indian primary school teachers. Aims: We aimed to document the factors affecting DSI and VRQOL scores among Indian primary school teachers and to study the correlation between these measures in Indian teachers with and without dysphonia. Settings and Design: This was a retrospective standard group comparison study. Subjects and Methods: A total of 90 primary school teachers (33 males and 57 females) were administered a vocal health questionnaire, and based on the questionnaire responses, participants were classified into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 33 participants without any self-reported symptoms of voice problems. Group 2 included 57 participants with self-reported symptoms of voice problems. Further, the phonation samples were recorded, and DSI scores were calculated. Participants were also instructed to fill out the VRQOL questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Shapiro–Wilk test, the Mann–Whitney U-test, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were carried out as a part of statistical analyses. Results: Teachers with self-reported vocal symptoms exhibited more frequent habits such as consumption of beverages, intake of spicy and oily food, less time interval between intake of meals and sleep, coughing, speaking at uncomfortable volumes, and frequent screaming or yelling or cheering. There was a significant positive correlation between VRQOL and the DSI values. Conclusion: Future studies can be carried out to discern the impact of the classroom's size, population, background noise, and amplification equipment on teachers.
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Validation of a low-cost, portable pure-tone audiometer p. 54
Jijo Pottakkal Mathai, HL Spandita
DOI:10.4103/jisha.jisha_16_22  
Introduction: Around the world, there is an increasing demand for better hearing services. Access to hearing care involves the availability of accurate and calibrated audiometric apparatus. As audiometers are task-specific and expensive equipment, their portability is a common constraint. Hence, there is a need for developing low-cost, portable audiometers, so that the instrument can be quickly transported to remote regions and is conveniently accessible to multiple centers. Aim: The aim was to compare the air conduction (AC) and bone conduction (BC) thresholds obtained using newly developed Nautilus “KiVi” and a commercial, nonportable audiometer in both normal hearing and hearing-impaired individuals. Methods: The study included a total of 73 people, 52 having normal hearing sensitivity and 21 with hearing impairment. Results: It was found that among individuals with normal hearing except at 125 Hz, there was no significant difference in AC thresholds obtained using the Nautilus “KiVi” audiometer and a commercial, nonportable audiometer across frequencies. However, the BC thresholds obtained using the Nautilus “KiVi” audiometer was significantly better than that of a commercial, nonportable audiometer across frequencies. Among the individuals with hearing impairment, except at 8k Hz, there was no significant difference in AC thresholds obtained using the Nautilus “KiVi” audiometer and a commercial, nonportable audiometer. Conclusion: The Nautilus “KiVi”audiometers provide consistent results throughout a wide frequency range in those with normal hearing as well as with hearing impairment. The equipment is portable and easy to use. Hence, it can be used for diagnostic testing in schools, hospitals, remote villages, and industries.
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Parental perspectives and attitudes toward the many aspects of cochlear implantation p. 61
Priyanka Mohan, Krishna Yerraguntla, Bellur Rajashekhar
DOI:10.4103/jisha.jisha_13_22  
Introduction: Although studies have been carried out to know the influence of family support, family size, the modality of communication, socioeconomic status, and maternal involvement on intervention outcomes, fewer studies have addressed parents' views and their attitudes toward the process. The current study aims to assess relatively unexplored domains in the Indian context through the Parents' Perspective questionnaire. Materials and Methods: The participant groups consisted of parents who were visiting implant centers for rehabilitation during the study period. Parents of children who have had at least 1 year of rehabilitation postimplantation were considered as participants. The parents' perspective questionnaire was adapted and modified to be socioculturally sensitive to the Indian population. The translated version(s) of the questionnaire comprising 40 items under 10 domains was administered in person and through telephonic interviews. Expectations and satisfaction ratings from 102 parents were analyzed across different domains. Results: The questionnaire recorded positive responses and satisfaction in all psychosocial domains assessed. A vast majority of parents reported difficulty in decision-making in addition to stress during the pre- and post-operative periods. Conclusions: The parental perspectives emerging from this study can help professionals address parental concerns, provide assistance in decision-making, and contribute to a better and more approachable service delivery system.
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